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全新版大学英语综合教程第四册第四单元课件_图文

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading Supplementary Reading

Unit 4 Globalization
Text A In Search of Davos Man 寻找达沃斯人
Text B Globalization, Alive and Well 全球化:方兴未艾
Detailed Reading

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Before Reading

P94

Global Reading

Overview

Detailed Reading

After Reading

Supplementary Reading

-how globalization shapes our sense of national identity,

全球化怎样塑造我们的国家认同感 -examine whether it undermines national loyalties Detailed Reading 审视它(全球化)是否会削弱对国家的忠诚
Western skeptics 西方的怀疑者(反对全球化的学者) Eastern enthusiasts 东方的支持者 economic integration 经济融合 political tolerance 政治包容

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Warming-up
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-Watch the video and discuss

-The World Economic Forum

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Watch the video clip “No Logo: brands globalization resistance” and discuss within your group questions given.
Detailed Reading

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In the following, there are some words and expressions. Think and construct new expressions related to globalization. Chang its part of speech if necessary.
Detailed Reading

economy, international, growth, trade, loans, global, workers, foreign, investment, marketplace, political, phenomenon, world, level

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? Tips: ? Economic Phenomenon,
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? Political Globalization, Trade Globalization, ? International Organizations, Global Economy, ? Foreign Investments, Foreign Markets, Foreign Loans, World Economy,

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The World Economic Forum (WEF)

Detailed Reading

What is the WEF?

What are the themes of it?

What are the Industries?

China and the WEF

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The World Economic Forum An independent, international organization incorporated as a Swiss not-for-profit foundation Detailed Reading whose motto is “entrepreneurship in the global public interest”. It believes that economic progress without social development is not sustainable, while social development without economic progress is not feasible.

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世界经济论坛 (WEF) 是一个非官方的国际组织,总 部设在瑞士日内瓦。论坛因每年年会都在达沃斯召 开,故也被称为“达沃斯论坛”。
Detailed Reading

Themes
随着国际形势的发展和变化,世界经济论坛所探讨的议 题逐渐突破了纯经济领域,许多双边和地区性问题以及世界 上发生的重大政治、军事、安全和社会事件等也成为论坛讨 论的内容。 此外,论坛还有各种性质的会员制组织,涉及政治、经济、 文化、宗教、传媒和学术等领域。世界经济论坛每年还与若 干国家的政府或企业联合主办各种国际经济讨论会。

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China and the World Economic Forum

Chinese Vice Premier Li Keqiang attended the Detailed Reading 2010 World Economic Forum (WEF) Annual Meeting opened in Davos, Switzerland. The links between China and the WEF started in 1979, when a Chinese delegation was invited to the forum for the first time. Since then, China has played a much greater role within the WEF, including hosting the summer session three times.

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Samuel Phillips Huntington (1927—2008) —An American Political Scientist Born Died
Detailed Reading

April 18, 1927 New York City, United States December 24, 2008 (aged 81) Martha?s Vineyard Massachuse tts

Nationality American Fields Political science Institutions Harvard University

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Stuyvesant High School Harvard University Alma mater University of Chicago Detailed Reading Yale University Known for Clash of Civilizations

Influenced

Fukuyama, Zakaria

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Part Division of the Text Match the ideas Further Understanding

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Part Division of the Text Part Para(s)
1 1~3

Main Ideas
Introduction to Davos Man and the World Economic Forum. Debate over the impact of globalization on current society and culture. History of globalization and its recent trends and future prospects.

2 3
4

4~5 6~8
9~11

Globalization versus nationalism and the challenges it faces

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Match the ideas In the text, there are many names and ideas mentioned. Scan and match the idea presented in Column B with the person in Column A. There are more names listed.

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Column A

1. John Chambers

2. Marco Tronchetti Provera 3. Alex Mandl 4. Patrick Sayer
5. Klaus Schwab 6. William Browder 7. Valerie Gooding

Column B A. There are still too many barriers to cross-border business in Europe, let alone the world.

B. Manila woman are strongly patriotic.
C. Cultural identity should be local and national in nature. D. U.S. and European companies are now facing high-quality, low-cost competition from overseas. E. I see myself as American without any hesitation.

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Questions and Answers 1. Did global trade exist in the past? What did people doing global trade think of it then?

Yes, global trade has been around for centuries. In the past, the corporations and countries that benefited from global trade were largely content to treat vast parts of the world as places to mine natural resources or sell finished products.

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2. What is Goldman Sachs?(高盛集团) prediction about the world economy in the future? P99 第八段

He predicted that four economies — Russia, Brazil, India and China — will become a much larger force in the world economy than widely expected, based on projections of demographic and economic growth, with China potentially overtaking Germany this decade. By 2050, these four newcomers will likely have displaced all but the U.S. and Japan from the top six economies in the world.

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3. Who does Manila Woman(马尼拉女人)refer to? P99 第九段

It refers to low-paid migrant workers from Asia and elsewhere who are increasingly providing key services around the world. Unlike Davos Man, Manila Woman is strongly patriotic.
4. What does the author think Davos Man need to figure out?

Davos Man needs to figure out how to strike a balance on a global scale between being international and being national at the same time.

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Before Reading

New Words and Phrases
Global Reading Detailed Reading After Reading

Supplementary Reading

1. globalization n. 全球化 globe n. 球,球状物; 世界; 天体; global adj. 全面的,全局的;全球的; globalize v. (使)全球化
相似构词:

nationalization 国有化,民族化,同化 internationalization 国际化 modernization 现代化

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2. sweep aside: 扫除,清除;不理会
Globalization is sweeping aside national borders. 全球化打破了国界。 他们对所有的反对意见不予理睬。

They swept all the objections aside.

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Collocation:

sweep away sweep out sweep over sweep up

扫清,迅速消灭 扫掉, 清除

眺望,环视
打扫干净,收拾干净

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3. asset n. 财产,资产;优势,资源;
capital / fixed assets cash assets
现金资产 流动资产 资本/固定资产

liquid/ circulating/ current assets

net assets

净资产

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4. élite: [??lit, e?lit] (法) 精英, n. 杰出人物;精华;精锐 (Para3, Line4)
这些人构成了有决定权的精英集团。

These people form an elite who have the power to make decisions.
Collocation:

political/social/economic elite
政治/社会/经济精英

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5. entitle:

vt. 1) give a title to 给?题名,给?取名 He entitled the book The Secret Garden. 2) give someone the official right to do or have sth. 给予(权利), 有资格做…

Full-time employees are entitled to receive health insurance.
他们有资格享有许多优惠和特权。

They are entitled to enjoy many advantages and privileges.

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6. facilitate: vt. 促进,助长;使容易;
-The new airport will facilitate the development of tourism in the city. -Zip codes are used to facilitate mail service. 邮政编码的使用方便了邮政服务
学校都建在同一校区内,以便资源共享。

Universities are located in the same campus to facilitate the sharing of resources

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7. at odds with: 与…不一致;与…相冲突
The government decision to raise taxes was at odds with their policies on inflation.
at odds it makes no odds take odds odds and ends 矛盾,不一致 没有关系,无关紧要 占优势 小事,不要紧的东西

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8.be committed to (名词/名词性短语) promise to do (sth.); be devoted to
中国承诺发展低碳经济。

China is committed to pursuing a low carbon economy.

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9. accelerate: v. (cause to) move faster or happen earlier
The runners accelerated smoothly round the bend. 选手们跑过弯道时平稳地加速。

We must seize all opportunities to accelerate our economic development. 必须抓住一切机遇加快经济发展.

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P99 Lin1-2

10. beat a path to/ beat down sb’s door:
if people beat a path to your door, they are interested in sth. you are selling, a service you are providing, etc. (大批的人)争先恐后地去接触,纷纷前去找(某人)

Now that she has become famous, all sorts of people will be beating a path to her door.
现在她已经成名, 她家门庭若市。

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Pattern:

beat a path to / beat down sb?s door 门庭若市 beat a big drum for / about 为?鼓吹,为?大肆宣传 beat a bargain 还价成交

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P99 Line6 11. Asian nations are creating “a remarkable environment of innovation, says John Chambers.

remarkable: adj.

unusual or surprising and therefore deserving attention or praise 显著的,异常的,引人注目的;非凡的;

These cars are remarkable for the quietness of their engines.
这些汽车因发动机没有噪音而不同凡响.

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相似近义词:Global Reading Before Reading

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Supplementary Reading

异常的,引人注目的;显著的,非凡的 outstanding, noticeable, remarkable, conspicuous, striking
-remarkable development (progress) 显著的进步
-To be standing out in a striking and clearly defined way.

-Her big eyes are her most striking feature.

-outstanding scientist(student) 杰出的科学家(学生)

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remarkable, outstanding, striking
striking 1. From the outside, the most ________ aspect of the building is its tall, slender tower. remarkable 2. It’s a __________ achievement for the company.

outstanding 3. The book is a series of interviews with ________ artists and writers.

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12. strike a balance: 求得平衡 他发现平衡家庭和工作的关系是很困难的。

He found it difficult to strike a balance between his family and his work.

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Text Understanding

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Part 1 2 3

Para(s) 1~3

Main Ideas

Introduction to Davos Man and the World Economic Forum. Debate over the impact of globalization on current society and culture. History of globalization and its recent trends and future prospects.

4~5 6~8

4

9~11

Globalization versus nationalism and the challenges it faces

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Globalization is sweeping aside national borders and changing relations between nations. What impact does this have on national identities and loyalties? Are they strengthened or weakened? The author investigates. In Search of Davos Man Peter Gumbel William Browder was born in Princeton, New Jersey, grew up in Chicago, and studied at Stanford University in California. But don?t call him an American. For the past 16 of his 40 years he has lived outside the U.S., first

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first in London and then, from 1996, in Moscow, where he runs his own investment firm. Browder now manages $1.6 billion in assets. In 1998 he gave up his American passport to become a British citizen, since his life is now centered in Europe. “National identity makes no difference for me,” he says. “I feel completely international. If you have four good friends and you like what you are doing, it doesn?t matter where you are. That?s globalization.”

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Alex Mandl is also a fervent believer in globalization, but he views himself very differently. A former president of AT&T, Mandl, 61, was born in Austria and now runs a French technology company, which is doing more and more business in China. He reckons he spends about 90% of his time traveling on business. But despite all that globetrotting, Mandl who has been a U.S. citizen for 45 years still identifies himself as an American. “I see myself as American without any hesitation. The fact that I spend a lot of time in other places doesn?t change that,” he says.

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Although Browder and Mandl define their nationality differently, both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth. And not incidentally, both are Davos Men, members of the international business élite who trek each year to the Swiss Alpine town for the annual meeting of the World Economic Forum, founded in 1971. This week, Browder and Mandl will join more than 2,200 executives, politicians, academics, journalists, writers and a handful of Hollywood stars for five days of networking,

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parties and endless earnest discussions about everything from post-election Iraq and HIV in Africa to the global supply of oil and the implications of nanotechnology. Yet this year, perhaps more than ever, a hot topic at Davos is Davos itself. Whatever their considerable differences, most Davos Men and Women share at least one belief: that globalization, the unimpeded flows of capital, labor and technology across national borders, is both welcome and unstoppable. They see the world increasingly as one vast, interconnected marketplace in which corporations search for the most advantageous locations to buy, produce and sell their goods and services.

Unit 4 Globalization
Before Reading

Part I Para.1-3

Global Reading

Detailed Reading

After Reading

Supplementary Reading

From Part I, we know that although both William Browder and Alex Mandle are so-called Davos Men, They are different. The former, born in the US, gave up his US passport to become a British citizen because national identity makes no difference for him. The latter, although an Australian by birth and spending of his adult life outside the US, holds his Us citizenship dear.

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Para.4 As borders and national identities become less important, some find that threatening and even dangerous. In an essay entitled “Dead Souls: The Denationalization of the American Elite,” Harvard Professor Samuel Huntington describes Davos Man (a phrase that first got widespread attention in the 1990s) as an emerging global superspecies and a threat. The members of this class, he writes, are people who “have little need for national loyalty, view national boundaries as obstacles that thankfully are vanishing, can

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and see national governments as residues from the past whose only useful function is to facilitate the élite?s global operations.” Huntington argues that Davos Man?s global-citizen self-image is starkly at odds with the values of most Americans, who remain deeply committed to their nation. This disconnect, he says, creates “a major cultural fault line. In a variety of ways, the American establishment, governmental and private, has become increasingly divorced from the American people.”

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Naturally, many Davos Men don?t accept Huntington?s terms. Klaus Schwab, the founder and executive chairman of the World Economic Forum, argues that endorsing a global outlook does not mean erasing national identity. “Globalization can never provide us with cultural identity, which needs to be local and national in nature.” ost
许多达沃斯人自然不同意Huntington的说法。世界经济论坛 的创始人兼执行主席Klaus Schwab争辩说,支持全球观并 不意味着抹去国家认同。 “全球化绝无可能给予我们文化 认同, 因为国家认同必须是本土的和民族的。

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In Part II, we learn that Prof. Huntington’s viewpoint Differs from that of Charles Schwab. The former warns that Davos Man poses a threat to American values, whereas the latter argues that endorsing a global outlook does not mean erasing national identity.

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Part III

Para.6-8

Global trade has been around for centuries; the corporations and countries that benefited from it were largely content to treat vast parts of the world as places to mine natural resources or sell finished products. Even as the globalization of capital accelerated in the 1980s, most foreign investment was between relatively wealthy countries, not from wealthy countries into poorer ones. U.S. technology, companies and money were often at the forefront of this movement. most

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However the past two decades have witnessed the rise of other significant players. The developed world is beating a path to China?s and India?s door — and Chinese and Indian companies, in turn, have started to look overseas for some of their future growth. Beijing has even started what it calls a “Going Out” policy that encourages Chinese firms to buy assets overseas. Asian nations are creating “a remarkable environment of innovation,” graduating

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says John Chambers, chief executive of Cisco Systems. “China and India are graduating currently more than five times the number of engineers that we are here in the U.S.” That means that U.S. and European companies are now facing high-quality, low-cost competition from overseas. No wonder so many Western workers worry about losing their jobs. “If the issue is the size of the total pie, globalization has proved a good thing,” says Orit Gadiesh, chairman of consultants Bain & Co. “If the issue is how the pie is divided, if you?re in the Western world you could question that.”

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The biggest shift may just be starting. A landmark 2003 study by Goldman Sachs predicted that four economies — Russia, Brazil, India and China — will become a much larger force in the world economy than widely expected, based on projections of demographic and economic growth, with China potentially overtaking Germany this decade. By 2050, Goldman Sachs suggested, these four newcomers will likely have displaced all but the U.S. and Japan from the top six economies in the world.

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In Part III, we find out the different between global trade before the 1980s and global trade after the 1980s.

Before the 1980s, most global trade took place among wealthier countries, while the rest of the world was treated as either a source of raw materials or a market for final products. After the 1980s, developing countries become more and more significant players in global trade.

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Also in Part III, there is a contrast between Davos Man and Manila Woman. While Davos Man may disregard national loyalty, Manila Woman is fiercely patriotic.

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Part IV Para9-11 It?s also entirely possible that the near future may see the pendulum of capital swing away from Davos Man-style globalization. One counterpoint is Manila Woman — low-paid migrant work workers from Asia and elsewhere who are increasingly providing key services around the world. Valerie Gooding, the chief executive of British health care company BUPA, says the British and U.S. health care system would break down without immigrant nurses from the Philippines, India, Nigeria and elsewhere. Unlike Davos Man, she says, they?re not ambivalent about being strongly patriotic.

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Para.10 Not all Davos Men seek global markets, either. Patrick Sayer runs a private equity firm in France called Eurazeo, and complains there are still too many barriers to cross-border business in Europe, let alone the world. So he?s focused Eurazeo on its domestic market. “I profit from being French in France. It?s easier for me to do deals,” Sayer says. “It?s the same elsewhere. If you?re not Italian in Italy, you won?t succeed.”

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That may sound like a narrow nationalism, yet it contains a hidden wisdom. Recall that Italy itself was, until 1861, not a unified nation but an aggregation of city-states. Despite tension between its north and south, there?s no contradiction between maintaining a regional identity and a national one. Marco Tronchetti Provera, chairman of Telecom Italia, for example, can feel both Milanese and Italian at once, even as he runs a company that is aspiring to become a bigger international presence. The question is whether it will take another 140 years for Davos Man to figure out how to strike the same balance on a global scale.

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In Part IV, a further division in the camp of Davos Man is illustrated. Some, like Patrick Sayer, are less keen on the global market than others, because national borders still hinder global trade.

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Useful Expressions Sentence Translation Dictation
Writing Practice

Word Understanding
Picture Talking

Proverbs and Quotations

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Writing Practice A brief introduction Samples Homework

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Useful Expressions 1. 国家认同 2. 扫除 3. 寻找

national identity sweep aside
in search of a fervent believer identify… as without any hesitation international business élite

4. 狂热信徒
5. 认为 6. 毫不迟疑 7. 国际商业精英

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8. 少数几位

Global Reading

a handful of

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9. 没完没了的认真的讨论

endless earnest discussion

10. 资本、劳动力和技术的流动

flow of capital, labor and technology

11. 最佳地点

the most advantageous locations 12. 全球超级物种 global superspecies 13. 与?渐行渐远 increasingly divorce from
14. 文化断层

cultural fault line
at the forefront of

15. 处于?的前沿

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16. 开辟一条通向?的道路 17. 一个创新的卓越环境

Global Reading

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beat a path to

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a remarkable environment of innovation
18. 根据对各国人口和经济增长的预计

be based on projections of demographic and economic growth

swing away from 20. 低薪流动劳工 low-paid migrant workers
19. 从?脱离 21. 医疗保健体系 22. 跨国界经营

health care system

cross-border business

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23. 更别提

let alone

24. 狭隘民族主义

a narrow nationalism

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Sentence Translation 1. Huntington argues that Davos Man?s global-citizen selfimage is starkly at odds with the values of most Americans, who remain deeply committed to their nation. 亨廷顿提出,达沃斯人以全球公民自居的自我形象, 与大多数美国人的价值观完全相悖。

2. If the issue is the size of the total pie, globalization has proved a good thing. If the issue is how the pie is divided, if you?re in the Western world you could question that.
如果问题涉及的是整个蛋糕的大小,那全球化已经被证明 是件好事。如果问题在于蛋糕怎么分,而你又是西方人, 那你就会质疑全球化。

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3. The question is whether it will take another 140 years for Davos Man to figure out how to strike the same balance on a global scale. 问题是,达沃斯人是否需要再花上140年,才能搞明 白如何在全球规模上取得同样的平衡。 4. 他们都将国籍视为个人选择,而不是由出生地决定的。 Both see their identity as a matter of personal choice, not an accident of birth.

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5. 欧洲跨国界经营中还有太多障碍,更别提全球经营了。 There are still too many barriers to cross-border business in Europe, let alone the world. 6. 这听上去也许像狭隘民族主义,但内中确大有学问。 That may sound like a narrow nationalism, yet it contains a hidden wisdom. 7.随着边界和对国家的认同变得越来越不重要,有些人将 此视作威胁,甚至危险。 As borders and national identities become less important, some find that threatening and even dangerous.

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Dictation Listen to the following passage and fill in the blanks with the words you hear. Multiculturalism is a concept with many meanings. acceptance But it often refers to __________ of immigrant and minority groups as distinct communities, distinguishable from the majority population. Like bilingualism, debate multiculturalism provokes ______ . Advocates of multiculturalism believe that members of minority groups should enjoy equal rights in American society without ethnic cultures giving up their diverse _____________ . Multicultural education programs, for instance, strive to teach the

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content of different cultures, to build ________ of these tolerance cultures, and to eliminate discrimination (歧视). The hope is to enable students to understand how other cultures view the world. Multiculturalists reject the idea of a melting pot __________ and assimilation (同化); they dismiss the idea that national identity must be based on a common heritage and values. Critics argue that multicultural education creates conflict ______________ among groups more than it fosters tolerance of one group for another. Cultural pluralism, critics contend, promotes rivalry (敌对) and ________ . divisions

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Moreover, they assert, European traditions remain central to American culture and institutions (风俗). Some critics find multiculturalism a token (象征性的) gesture ________ designed to hide continuing domination of American culture by the recognition majority group. Others argue that __________ of cultural address differences and group identities does not help _______ social and economic disadvantages.

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A brief introduction

Coherence literally means “sticking together.” The elements of coherent writing — the words and the information they convey — are related to one another so that readers can follow the flow of thought easily from sentence to sentence, paragraph to paragraph. The problem with the term coherence is that it sounds static, as if coherent writing just sits there sticking together. Coherence in writing actually has a dynamic quality, because it has to do with movement: movement of information and ideas, movement of the reader?s changing perceptions and knowledge.

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Transitional devices used to achieve coherence addition comparison concession again, also, and, and then, besides, equally important, finally, first, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, last, moreover, next, second, still, too also, in the same way, likewise, similarly granted, naturally, of course although, and yet, but at the same time, despite that, even so, even though, for all that, however, in contrast, in spite of, instead, nevertheless, notwithstanding, on the contrary, on the other hand, otherwise, regardless, still, though, yet

contrast

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emphasis example or illustration

certainly, indeed, in fact, of course after all, as an illustration, even, for example, for instance, in conclusion, indeed, in fact, in other words, in short, it is true, of course, namely, specifically, that is, to illustrate, thus, truly all in all, altogether, as has been said, finally, in brief, in conclusion, in other words, in particular, in short, in simpler terms, in summary, on the whole, that is, therefore, to put it differently, to summarize

summary

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time sequence

after a while, afterward, again, also, and then, as long as, at last, at length, at that time, before, besides, earlier, eventually, finally, formerly, further, furthermore, in addition, in the first place, in the past, last, lately, meanwhile, moreover, next, now, presently, second, shortly, simultaneously, since, so far, soon, still, subsequently, then, thereafter, too, until, until now, when

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Samples Sample 1: Paragraph Coherence It is also possible to claim that information technology is playing an increasingly vital role in education. One way this happens is that more and more academic books are generated electronically and in consequence many students are using computers to study. An additional point is that computer technology is frequently used by students to make presentations both to their peers and professors. Indeed, it is probably true to say that most courses at university require some level of computer literacy.

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Sample 2: Essay Coherence

There is one major argument in favour of replacing art, music and sport on the curriculum with subjects like IT. This is that the purpose of school is to prepare children for their working life after school, so the subjects on the curriculum should be relevant to their potential careers. From this point of view, IT is much relevant to schoolchildren as they need to be computer literate if they want to survive in the workplace. For example, it is easy to see that word processing and programming skills will impress employers more than the ability to run fast or draw well.

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There are also, however, strong arguments for retaining the more traditional subjects as part of the curriculum. One significant counter-argument is that the purpose of education is not just to prepare children for later careers, but also to develop their all round “culture”. It is important that children leave school with some knowledge of art, music and sport as all these are all help develop aspects of young people?s personalities. My own personal point of view is that there is merit in both sides of the debate and that all children should study some IT, art music and sport at least at primary school. At secondary school, however, children should be offered a choice

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choice between these subjects so that they can continue to study them if they wish. In this way, no child will be disadvantaged.

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Homework For this part, you are allowed 30 minute to write a short essay on the topic “How Will Our Life Go on Without Internet?”. You should write at least 120 words following the outline given bellow: How Will Our Life Go on Without Internet? 1. 网络提供给了人们丰富多彩和便捷的生活 2. 很多人开始感觉离开网络寸步难行 3. 你对网络依赖症的看法

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As a primary source of information as well as an efficient means of communication, Internet offers people a colourful and convenient life. Just by clicking the mouse, we can enjoy a brilliant and easy life that could not be achieved ever before: shopping, making friends, contacting relatives, looking for jobs, downloading music and movies, conducting business deals, and freely airing our opinions. For its convenience, Internet has attracted people like magnets and some people even claim that it is indispensable. To them, life can?t go on without Internet. Every day millions of people spend hours on end surfing the Internet. They are obsessed with it so much that they forget many other important matters.

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As for me, I don?t approve of unrestrained Internet reliance. Although Internet is a gift of the technological revolution and a blessing of this information age, we should never let it control our life. Internet absolutely doesn?t mean the whole world to us. Instead, we should guard against its negative effects. To those Internet addicts, I would add: “Self-control can make or break your life. With proper use, Internet serves you; otherwise, it kills you.”

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Word Understanding Look at the following words and expressions relating to the world problems existing nowadays. Match the definition and drag the word or expression into the gap after the definition. pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 1. when people do not like or trust someone because they are of a different race, sex, religion, etc. ( discrimination )

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pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 2. someone who has had to leave their country to escape from danger or war ( refugee )

3. the basic rights that everyone has to say what they think, vote, be fairly treated, etc. ( human rights ) 4. the use of bombs and violence, especially against ordinary people, to try to force a government to do something ( terrorism

)

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pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 5. someone with very strong political or religious opinions ( refugee ) 6. someone who comes into a country to live or work without official permission ( illegal immigrant )

7. a group of people of a different race or religion than ( minorities most people in a country or area
8. damage caused to the air, water, soil, etc by harmful ( pollution chemicals and waste.

)
)

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pollution, extremist, refugee, terrorism, famine, minorities, discrimination, drought, illegal immigrant, human rights 9. a situation in which a large number of people have little or no food for a long time, and some people die as a ( famine ) result 10. a very serious disease that stops your body defending itself against infection ( AIDS

)

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Talk about the Pictures

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Culture Notes Reading Comprehension Task

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Thomas L. Friedman (1953– )
an American journalist, columnist, Marshall Scholar and multi Pulitzer Prize winning author. Friedman graduated summa cum laude (以最优异的学业成绩) from Brandeis University with a degree in Mediterranean studies and received a master’s degree in modern Middle East studies from Oxford. He has served as a visiting professor at Harvard University and has been awarded honorary degrees from several U.S. universities.

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Thomas Friedman’s Three Eras of Globalization Watch the video clip and fill in the blanks of the table.

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Great Era 1st 2nd 3rd

Period

Size

Characteristics

1492—early countries? __________ _______________ Large—medium globalization 1800 __________ _______________

_____________ small—medium companies? 1820—2000 —small _____________ globalization
2000— individuals? __________ small—tiny ____________ _______________ present globalization __________ ____________ _______________

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P114

Text B Globalization, Alive and Well

Opponents of globalization are naturally keen to seize upon any event that would appear to support their case, and the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11, 2001, seemed to provide one such opportunity. Yet despite some wishing to see an end to globalization it survives alive and well, and with good reason, argues New York Times columnist Thomas Friedman.

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Globalization, Alive and Well

Thomas L. Friedman
If one were having a contest for the most wrongheaded prediction about the world after 9/11, the winner would be the declaration by the noted London School of Economics professor John Gray that 9/11 heralded the end of the era of globalization. Not only will Sept. 11 not be remembered for ending the process of global financial, trade and technological integration, but it may well be remembered for bringing some sobriety to the anti-globalization movement.

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If one thing stands out from 9/11, it?s the fact that the terrorists originated from the least globalized, least open, least integrated corners of the world: namely, Saudi Arabia, Yemen, Afghanistan and northwest Pakistan. Countries that don?t trade in goods and services also tend not to trade in ideas, pluralism or tolerance.

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But maybe the most important reason why globalization is alive and well post-9/11 is that while pampered college students and academics in the West continue to debate about whether countries should globalize, the two biggest countries in the world, India and China — who represent one-third of humanity — have long moved beyond that question. They have decided that opening their economies to trade in goods and services is the best way to lift their people out of abject poverty and are now focused simply on how to globalize in the most stable manner. Some prefer to go faster, and some prefer to phase out currency controls and subsidies gradually, but the debate about the direction they need to go is over.

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“Globalization fatigue is still very much in evidence in Europe and America, while in places like China and India, you find a great desire for participation in the economic expansion processes,” said Jairam Ramesh, the Indian Congress Party?s top economic adviser. “... Even those who are suspicious now want to find a way to participate, but in a way that manages the risks and the pace. So we?re finding ways to ?glocalize? to do it our own way. It may mean a little slower growth to manage the social stability, but so be it.... I just spent a week in Germany and had to listen to all these people there telling me how globalization is destroying India and adding to poverty, and I just said to them, ?Look, if you want to argue about ideology, we can do that, but on the level of facts, you?re just wrong.? ”

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That truth is most striking in Bangalore, India?s Silicon Valley, where hundreds of thousands of young Indians, most from lower-middle-class families, suddenly have social mobility, motor scooters and apartments after going to technical colleges and joining the Indian software and engineering firms providing back-room support and research for the world?s biggest firms — thanks to globalization. Bangalore officials say each tech job produces 6.5 support jobs, in construction and services.

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“Information technology has made millionaires out of ordinary people [in India] because of their brainpower alone —not caste, not land, not heredity,” said Sanjay Baru, editor of India?s Financial Express. “India is just beginning to realize that this process of globalization is one where we have an inherent advantage.”

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Taking advantage of globalization to develop the Indian I.T. industry has been “a huge win in terms of foreign exchange [and in] self-confidence,” added Nandan Nilekani, chief executive of Infosys, the Indian software giant. “So many Indians come and say to me that ?when I walk through immigration at J.F.K. or Heathrow, the immigration guys look at me with respect now.? The image of India changed from a third-world country of snake charmers and rope tricks to the software brainy guys.” Do a majority of Indians still live in poor villages? Of course. Do we still need to make globalization more fair by compelling the rich Western countries to open their markets more to those things that the poor countries are best able to sell: food and textiles? You bet.

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But the point is this: The debate about globalization before 9/11 got really stupid. Two simple truths got lost: One, globalization has its upsides and downsides, but countries that come at it with the right institutions and governance can get the best out of it and cushion the worst. Two, countries that are globalizing sensibly but steadily are also the ones that are becoming politically more open, with more opportunities for their people, and with a young generation more interested in joining the world system than blowing it up.

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with good reason: with good cause; justifiably One who hesitates does so with good reason

很多居民担心他们的工作是有道理的。
Some residents feared for their jobs with good reason.

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herald: vt. announce or signal the approach of

Halloween heralds the beginning of the dark, cold half of the year.
先知宣告了巴比伦的毁灭。 The prophet heralded the destruction of Babylon.

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If one were having a contest for the most wrongheaded prediction about the world after 9/11, the winner would be the declaration by the noted London School of Economics professor John Gray that 9/11 heralded the end of the era of globalization. Translate the sentence into Chinese. 如果组织一次对9/11后的世界局势最错误的预言评选的 话,冠军将会是著名的伦敦经济学院教授约翰· 格雷所 宣称的9/11预示着全球化时代的终结。

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originate: v. come into being, begin to exist His book originated from a newspaper report. 所有的理论都来源于实践。 All theories originate from practice.

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globalize: v. make (sth.) become generally accepted all over the world
The report paints a picture of a world of increasingly globalized education. 总经理强调,要保持全球化生产成本的竞争力。 The General Manager stressed the need to globalize production to remain cost-competitive.

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namely: adv. that is to say There are two ways to slide easily through life: namely, to believe everything, or to doubt everything; both ways save us from thinking. 他懂三个国家的外语,即:日语、英语和法语。 He knows three foreign languages, namely Japanese, English and French.

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stable: adj. firmly fixed; not likely to move, change or fail More and more nomads have settled down and led a stable life.

慢下来, 以稳速回答问题。
Slow down, and answer questions at a stable pace. NB: stability 是“stable‖ 的名词形式, 意为 “the state or quality of being stable‖

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phase out: bring or come to an end, one stage at a time
Citing its high cost at a time of tight budgetary constraint, the University of Illinois will phase out an art history program. 即显(Polaroid film)胶片早已被淘汰。 Polaroid film was phased out long ago.

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currency: n. money in actual use Germany once had a solid economy, good fiscal and monetary policies,and a hard currency. 你的外币账户允许以美元、英镑和欧元提款。 Your foreign currency account allows withdrawal in USD, GBP and Euros.

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subsidy: n. monetary assistance granted by a government in support of an enterprise regarded as being in the public interest An increasing number of China export products are facing anti-subsidy lawsuits in foreign countries. 补助金只提供购买3500元以下的电脑。 The subsidy was offered only for purchases of computers below 3500 yuan.

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fatigue: n. great tiredness, usu. resulting from hard work or exercise

The plane crash was most probably caused by metal fatigue.
他被劳累拖垮了。

He was worn down with fatigue.

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in evidence: plainly visible; easily seen or noticed As there was a pattern in evidence in all these murders, we?re quite sure they were committed by the same person. 这位女演员确信她的订婚戒指是引人注目的。 The actress made sure that her engagement ring was in evidence.

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participation: n. the act of taking part in or sharing in sth. There is a need for more infected persons with HIV/AIDS to come out in the open and take active participation in activities to raise people?s awareness. 课堂参与占期末成绩的20%。 Participation in class accounts for 20% of your final grade.

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“Globalization fatigue is still very much in evidence in Europe and America, while in places like China and India, you find a great desire for participation in the economic expansion processes,” said Jairam Ramesh, the Indian Congress Party?s top economic adviser.
Translate the sentence into Chinese. “全球化疲劳在欧美仍很显著,而在中国和印度这样的 地方,你会发现人们急切地想参与到经济扩张进程中 来,” 印度国大党的首席经济顾问杰伦· 兰密施说。

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so be it: (used to express acceptance, esp. of a situation one is not entirely happy with) I accept it as it is If it?s your wish, so be it.

没有什么好做的。就这样吧。
There is nothing better to do. So be it.

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add to: increase

The strike is adding to the chaos, but it is not causing it. 大米的价格最近几月急速上涨,增添了穷人的痛苦。
Rice prices have risen sharply over recent months, adding to the pain of the poor.

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software: n. computer programs

India is said to turn out more software engineers than any other country.
小公司需要更便宜的软件。 Small companies need cheaper software.

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inherent: adj. existing as a natural and permanent feature or quality of sb. / sth. Weight is an inherent property of matter. 对美的渴望使我们所有人与生俱来的。 The desire for beauty is inherent in us all.

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advantage: n. sth. that puts you in a better position than others There is an advantage to being multilingual. 天气对我们的小组有利。 The weather is of advantage to our team. Collocation: take advantage of to advantage 利用,占便宜

使最好方面突出,有利地,有效地

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a majority of: the greater number or part of

A new poll shows that a majority of New Yorkers support gay marriage.
大多数的公司禁止在工作期间登陆社会网站。 A majority of companies prohibit social networking websites at work.

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you bet: (used for saying “yes” in an emphatic way) you can be sure — Are you a fan of Michael Jackson? —You bet! 你发誓这是一个阴谋。 You bet it?s a conspiracy.

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upside: n. an advantageous aspect

The upside of the whole thing is that we got a free trip to Africa. 恼人的是我们星期四才能旅行, 但好处是票价会更便宜。
It?s annoying that we can?t travel until Thursday, but the upside is that the fare?s cheaper then. NB: upside 的反义词是 ―downside‖, 意为 “不利方面,缺 点”。例如:The downside of the book is that it is written in a rather boring style. 这本书的缺点是,它 的写作风格太单调。

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blow up: damage or destroy violently

We need to blow up the old bridge and build a new one. 海盗威胁要炸毁船只。
The pirates threatened to blow up the ship.

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Globalization has its upsides and downsides, but countries that come at it with the right institutions and governance can get the best out of it and cushion the worst.
Translate the sentence into Chinese. 全球化有优点也有缺点,但如果参与全球化的国家有恰 当的制度和管理,它们就能从中获得最大的好处,并且 能缓和最不利的方面造成的影响。

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Comprehension Task— Group Discussion Watch the video clip entitled “American Born Chinese (ABC)” and discuss in the group the following questions.

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1. Do you know anyone who is an ABC? Say sth. of him / her. 2. Are there any differences between a Chinese and an ABC? What do you think are the differences? 3. With the globalization, is it helpful to be an ABC? Why or Why not?


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